Last month's discovery of a single cow with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in a Washington state dairy herd illustrates the need for a national livestock identification system to trace infected cattle in the US, government and beef industry officials say, but plans to deploy such a system are still hobbled by a lack of funding.
A consortium of livestock producers and processors as well as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in September developed the US Animal Identification Plan (USAIP), which called for identifying all 30 million cattle in the US with a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag by July 2005. But, according to Robert Fourdraine, chief operating officer at the Wisconsin Livestock Identification Consortium, who also served as IT director for the USAIP, funding "is the $US600 million question." That sum is the estimated cost to deploy an electronic tracking system throughout the US livestock industry, covering cattle as well as other animals such as pigs and sheep.
Fourdraine says the USAIP currently has no funding, although he's looking for government funds to back the plan. The importance of a nationwide livestock tracking system was heightened by last month's BSE case, which resulted in a closure of export markets around the world to US beef and a commensurate drop in the value of the US beef herd, Fourdraine says.
It took the USDA four days to trace the origin of the Washington state cow infected with BSE to what the agency determined was its birth herd in Canada, according to Ron DeHaven, the USDA's chief veterinary officer. DeHaven says that the effort to find the diseased cow was "shoe-leather type work," which involved tracing paper records and holding interviews with cattle owners, livestock dealers and market operators. DeHaven says this information was then correlated with records maintained by the producers and processors.
DeHaven says the US "is well on the road" to developing a nationwide electronic livestock ID system. However, Wayne Baggett, a USDA spokesman, says the agency couldn't address funding for the USAIP yet.
Fourdraine says the USAIP has a goal of identifying animals within 48 hours. He adds that if a nationwide animal identification system had been in place last week, tracing of the Washington animal could have been done in even less time.
Mick Prendergast, manager of Australia's National Livestock Identification Scheme (NLIS), which uses RFID tags to track cattle, says he could trace an electronically tagged cow "in 10 seconds or less." Prendergast says 35,000 out of 100,000 producers in Australia use RFID tags, with some 7.5 million cattle out of 28 million in the country equipped with the tags and traceable through the NLIS database. Australia will take NLIS nationwide by this July, with traceability mandatory for animals shipped to countries in the European Union.
Prendergast says that North Sydney-based Meat & Livestock Australia (MLA), a producer-owned organisation that runs the NLIS, views speedy livestock tracing as essential to protecting its export markets, which account for about 70% of the country's beef production.
Scott Stuart, president of the Colourado Springs-based National Livestock Producers Association, says the ability to isolate infected livestock would help the US calm jitters in its export markets, such as Japan. Stuart says he agreed with Fourdraine that the US government should pick up the infrastructure cost for the USAIP. But, he added, producers will also shoulder "considerable costs," including that of the RFID tags, which would amount to $400 million or more for the 200 million cattle, sheep and pigs produced in the US annually.
Kip Kernodle, president of Allflex USA, an NLIS-approved supplier of RFID readers and tags in Australia, says a $2 tag is a "minimal cost" for an animal that can sell for thousands of dollars.
DeeVon Bailey, an agricultural economist at Utah State University in Logan, says, "The event of the past week has absolutely demonstrated the need for a national livestock ID system in the United States." He added that the $US600 million cost of such a system is low compared with the costs absorbed by the US agricultural industry because of the closing of its export markets last week. He estimated that the price of cattle has dropped "$10 to $15 per hundredweight" (equal to 100 pounds) due to BSE concerns, which resulted in a $US3.6 billion overall cost to the US beef industry.